In psychology, discussions about human development involve different stages of a lifelong process. These are physical, cognitive, and social-emotional developments. All these have different sub-areas that also mature as we age.
The changes that we experience in these areas have the power to affect the later stages of our lives. For example, any cognitive development that we undergo in our earlier years can affect our learning, and consequently, our competencies and intellect. Moreover, any external factor like the environment that influences these cognitive changes can also make significant impacts on whatever it is we wish to do in the future, such as our choice of careers.
It is universal knowledge that some careers require more rigorous training and a more extensive list of competencies than others. An instance of this can be seen in how it takes more time to prepare to become a private general practitioner (GP) in Birmingham City Centre than it is to pursue a career in construction in any place.
It is not only our cognitive development that has long-term effects. The other areas of development, if stunted, can have adverse consequences in our lives. Taking this into consideration, what then are other factors that can affect the changes that we experience?
As we all know, many of us eventually become parents. Although in recent times, parenting occurs when we are much older than our parents were when they had us.
Those who have no desire of becoming parents still have the opportunity to positively influence future generations. This is called generativity, the act of providing guidance and caring for the well-being of the future generation either through the act of parenting or through career or volunteer work.
Going back on the topic of parenting, what are the different styles that parents can utilize when raising their children and how can they affect the next generation?
Parents who make use of authoritarian parenting are firm and overly strict, and more concerned with rules and obeying them. They are also perceived to be uncompromising in the way that they cannot accept any viewpoint other than their own.
This style of parenting does not allow for much warmth and may result in children misbehaving when they reach their teenage years.
Permissive parenting is when parents ask very little of their kids. It has two types. One is permissive neglectful, wherein parents allow their kids to do whatever they want so long as it doesn’t interfere with the activities of the parents.
The other is permissive indulgent. Still, no limits are set by the parents but this type of parenting style results in parents getting too involved and wanting to give everything they can to their children.
Both permissive parenting styles often produce children who are selfish, immature, and lacking in social skills.
A style of parenting that attempts to marry the former two is authoritative parenting. Warmth, affection, and occasional indulgence are accompanied by firm limits.
This kind of parenting can be seen as democratic since parents allow their children to have a say on how rules are formed, all while they maintain the role of being the final decision-maker.
Children who grow up with this kind of parenting are typically more well adjusted compared to those who did not.